Linda Ikeji Blogger
Aus Bildungsstreik 2009
Right here is an abridged version (yet richly enlightening) from one of the posts i wrote concerning this topic.
Film exhibition began to flourish during the Colonial period, with Glover Memorial Hall playing host to an array of unforgettable movies viewed by "possible Nigerians", in August 1903. Nonetheless, the non-availability of proper records reflecting the title of the debut movie exhibited has actually developed a lapse in the precedent stock. Regardless of the lacuna, the method had been paved for the exhibit of even more foreign movies at the Hall and other marked locations.
The emotionally distressing "Master - Servant" relationship, noticeable in the continuous attacks, batteries, intimidation, segregation, victimization, performed by the Colonial masters on the colonized, with darkened clouds of animosity, vengeance, thirst for flexibility, paving the way to splattering drops of such thoughts, instinctively projected with the colonized intermittent in-subordinate actions, started to spread among the blacks. The British understood they had to thread with caution if they still desired to play "god" in their lives when movies such as Tales of Manhattan, Trailer horn, Tarzan series started to stimulate a transformation in the hearts of Blacks around the world.
Familiar with the fatal power of insurgency which can be unleashed with the Film medium, the British out of fear for their lives and possible loss of the Queen's sovereignty took the bull by the horn, and promptly created a Colonial Film Censors Board (FCB) in 1933 to censor and classify films before they were launched for visual usage by the public. Following the facility of the board, Films such as "The primitive, primitive man, Dixie, Buffalo Bill, The Keys of the Kingdom, Sleepy Town Girl were labelled 'efficient' to be seen, while Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde, Clive of India, The Isle of Forgotten Sins, House of Frankenstein were thought about unsuitable for seeing.
The Censor's body underwent a change process into the Federal Board of Film Censors (FBFC) from the previously mentioned, and the laws from which the changed body derived its powers ranged from the 1948 Cinematograph Laws of Nigeria, the Cinematograph Laws of 1963, to the 1963/64 Cinematograph Law and Regulations. Today National Film and Video Censors Board came into existence by virtue of decree, now Act 85 of 1993. The introduction of Nigeria's Independence (1960) and the Republican status (1963), declared the dawn of a brand-new period in all sectors.
"The Yoruba Travelling Theatre Group" of the 60's and 70's can be described as the "Fountain Head" of motion picture productions in Nigeria. The veterans with fantastic Theatrical skills and terrific efficiencies took their works past the phase, and dove into the sea of movie productions using the Celluloid format. Notable movie makers on the Roll call of Honour throughout the Celluloid boom period of the 70's include Ola Balogun, Eddie Ugbomah, late Herbert Ogunde, Adeyemi Afolayan a.k.a Ade Love (father of Kunle Afolayan of the Irapada fame), Ladi Ladebo, Moses Adejumo, Adebayo Salami and Afolabi Adesanya.
The list of reported movies produced during the 70's period and going beyond rather into the 80's is simply impressive and goes to reveal that the Movie Industry has been around much longer, contrary to the '1992 belief syndrome' most have been injected with. Such works include Kongi Harvest (1971), Alpha (1972), Bull Frog in the Sun (1974), Amadi (1975), Ajani Ogun (1975), Muzik Man (1976), Bisi, Daughter of the River (1977), Ija Ominira (1978), Aiye (1979), Kadara (1980), Jaiyesimi (1980) Efunsetan Aniwura (1981), Cry Freedom (1981), Ija Orogun (1982) Owo L'Agba (1982).
The cost of producing films in that period was economically back breaking, with Nigerians further frustrating the efforts of the filmmakers by choosing to view films of occidental and oriental origin at the Cinemas and Exhibition centres, rather than the locally produced ones. The Cowboy movies were exciting to view while the Chinese films paraded amongst others, the Legendary "Bruce Lee" in (Lo Wei's, The Big Boss (1971), Fist of Fury (1972), Way of the Dragon (1972), Enter the Dragon (1973), The Game of Death launched in 1978) who displayed Martial Arts dexterity, undoubtedly a fighting method alien, yet remarkable to us at that time.
Indian movies in the late 60's and well into the 70's paraded popular names like Rajesh Khanna, Dharmendra Singh Deol, Mumtaz, Amitabh Bachchan, Anil kapoor, Hema Malini, and produced favorites such as "Bobby", "Sholay", "Kabhi Kabhi", "Dharamveer", "Amar Akbar Anthony". Their stars displayed excellent acting abilities against the background of love themes, and ear pleasing songs combined with integrated dance steps, produced with noise and unique impacts, though matchless with exactly what obtains today purchased over the indigenes loyalty for their movies.
Hence, the Movie Founding Fathers started to face the difficulties of redeeming their financial investments, which gradually became virtually an impossible task, an anthem they continuously rendered much to the pain of possible financers. They counted their losses and licked their wounds sustained in the financial fight with every movie they launched. The deluge of VCRS in the 80's developed a paradigm shift from the Cine to the VHS format, makinged manufacturings much easier, faster and less costly by a turning point in contrast to the previous. Cinema houses and other Exhibition centres were finally shut down and the Baton of Cine film making slipped from the hands of the Founding founders as they attempted to hand over the movie baton to the next generation within the specified Baton Exchange Zone. The dream of becoming a re-nowned Movie Industry was ruined when the flow of the Film Relay cycle was broken.
Home Videos were produced which served as an alternative to the movie theaters, and the name naturally comes from the truth that you might seat within the convenience of your house and watch the motion pictures produced in the VHS format through your VCR. Film Makers profited from the gains of the Home Video idea provided, and began producing movies making use of the Yoruba language as the ways of communication. The year "1992" has actually overtime been widely accepted as the triggering duration of Home Video manufacturings, with Ken Nnebue's "Living in Bondage" stated to be the first motion picture made for industrial purposes using the Igbo/English language.
The film no question struck the "Movie Well", which invoked a mass exodus of people from various other realms into the art of film manufacturings, having actually seen the opportunities that lay in the Gold mine area. Therefore, did the Home Video Industry marked "Nollywood" arise.
The truth that "Living in Bondage" was ascribed with the honor of being the first movie produced industrial functions and the one upon which the Home Video revolution was presumably established on, culminating into Nollywood, didn't go undisputed. Late Alade Aromire before his death, fired up a controversial fire, firmly insisting that his and not Ken's motion picture should have been consulted such an honor. When challenged by a reporter on the concern he had actually mentioned that Ken had actually produced over 40 Yoruba movies, and had actually begun with "Aje N'yami".
There had actually been a flourishing motion picture sector prior to he came on board, so ken couldn't have actually started it.
The present National Film and Video Censors Board (NFVCB) did not exist till 1994. Some of the best knowledge about Shop in Nigeria can be found by checking out this site~ Shop in Nigeria. On this surging concern, Late Alade Armoire produced motion pictures such as Ekun, Omije (pts 1-3), Obirin Asiko, Ayo ni o, Adun, Orire which were launched to the public in between 1985 and 1991.
Ken Nnebue still insists that his film "Living in Bondage" was the first Home Video movie made for commercial purposes. His stand on the matter is rather unstable, having prior to the production of Living in Bondage recruited industrial motion pictures in Yoruba language such as Ina Ote, Aje N'iyami and others. Let's not forget the barrage of Yoruba TV dramas that were mass produced on VHS tapes and sold to the general public before 1992. One can't fail to discuss the fabulous Eddie Ugbomah's motion picture "The Great Attempt" (1989), which would have made history as the 1st Nigerian cine film in the video tape format to have been censored by the defunct Federal Board of Film Censors (FBFC) based on a "unique concession" granted him officially by the long-term secretary of the Federal Ministry of Information and Culture at that time.
The strong components projected in the motion picture were considered unacceptable for public viewing by the Board, for this reason the film was never launched. Tunde Alabi -Hundeyin's "Iyawo Alhaji" is officially on record as the first commercial (direct to exhibit hall) video film to be censored and classified by the NFVCB in 1994 at the National Theatre, (Cinema Hall) Iganmu. Regardless of the questionable fire raised, the worldwide publicity provided "Living in Bondage" over the years inevitably imputed the motion picture into our memory banks as the flag bearer of the Home Video transformation of perpetuities. People, irrespective of Nationality, gender, tribe, and race are challenged with difficulties each day. Some of these troubles are of an international nature, while others are weird to various societies. Movies offer individuals the opportunity of telling their own tales, free from alien interference.
Nigerian movie manufacturers leveraged on this and produced movies projecting our way of living, culture, regional fashion trend, burning problems, problems afflicting our society, regardless of the choking odor of tribalism viewed in all sectors. Films were created the seeing pleasure of Nigerians at first, (prior to the mass exportation trend), with messages to motivate, inspire, reprove, and appropriate abnormalities particularly in the Political, Social systems, to avoid physical violence and all forms of evil.
The tactical use of the English language as the interaction device, marketing methods and execution through using trailers through T. V, Posters (now prohibited in Lagos State), tape-recorded a boost in sales, and broadened the viewership base past the coasts of our Nation to nations such as Ghana, Togo, South Africa, Kenya, U.S.An as well as the U.K. Unfortunately, the films churned out at a disconcerting rate were technically lacking in crucial areas considered as germane in the production procedure.
The popular "shoe string budget plan" tag has become synonymous with the Industry's antecedent of making movies on incredibly reduced budgets compared to other motion picture bodies in other countries, ($10- $15,000 at first), however currently stretches to $25,000, with a tiny variety of producers further stretching the apparently financial limitation to N 7,10,20 Million and more. The movies were and are still shot dominantly between 10-12 days, through Beta cam (now HDV cameras), were produced in the VHS format (now VCD & DVD), duplicated in mass and sold by the Marketers who likewise functioned as Distributors.
Over a thousand movies were being created yearly by producers and utterly surprised by the shocking analytical data of motion picture manufacturings, the International film spotlight was shone on the Multi Million naira Industry "Nollywood". The Industry's total assets as at 2008 stood in between an approximated $250 and $300 Million dollars. It is worthy of note that a Global movie theater survey, carried out in 2006 by the UNESCO Institute for Statistics (UIS) and launched sometime in May 2009, rated Nollywood as the 2nd largest producing film body on the planet behind Bollywood and ahead of Hollywood based on the numerical data of the films produced.